Food inspection is crucial for ensuring food safety, using risk-based approaches to target high-risk products and businesses. This guidance aids national authorities in designing and implementing risk-based systems, offering step-by-step instructions, examples, and tools for prioritization and inspection frequency estimation. It emphasizes adapting to individual country needs and recognizing variations in food risks and production chain characteristics. The document underscores resource-efficient, risk-based food inspection systems, prioritizing high-risk products and businesses to prevent safety incidents proactively. It suggests designing models based on relevant information and periodically adjusting them for continuous improvement.