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China is one of the major countries for the production and use of antibacterial agents. Antibacterial agents are widely used in healthcare and animal husbandry. It plays a significant role in treating infections and saving patient lives, preventing and treating animal diseases, improving farming efficiency, and guaranteeing public health security. However, antimicrobial resistance has become increasingly prominent due to insufficient research and development capacity of new antimicrobials, sales of antimicrobials without prescriptions in pharmacies, irrational use of antibacterial agents in medical and food animal sectors, non-compliant waste emissions of pharmaceutical enterprises, as well as lack of public awareness toward rational use of antimicrobials. Bacterial resistance ultimately affects human health, but the cause of bacterial resistance and consequences are beyond the health sector. Antimicrobial resistance brings increasing biosecurity threats, worsens environmental pollution, constrains economic development and other adverse effects to human society, thus, there is an urgent need to strengthen multi-sectoral and multi-domain collaborative planning to jointly cope with this issue. 

AMR,  Antimicrobial resistance,  antibiotics,  National Action Plan,