Patients with retreatment tuberculosis (TB) represent those who have been treated previously for onemonth ormorewith anti-TB drugs and who have been diagnosed once again with the disease.These patientsmainly include relapses, treatment after failure, or loss to follow-up on a first-line treatment regimen [1]. The number of these patients is not negligible. In 2014, of the 6.3 million TB cases that were notified by National TB Programmes (NTPs) to the World Health Organization (WHO), approximately 700,000 patients were already previously treated