A conceptual framework for the environmental surveillance of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance

Patricia M.C. Huijbers, Carl-Fredrik Flach, D.G. Joakim Larsson Centre for Antibiotic Resistance Research (CARe), University of Gothenburg (2019) C2
The systematic surveillance of antibiotic use and antibiotic re-sistance prevalence in humans and animals is imperative for managingbacterial infectious disease (JPIAMR, 2019;WHO, 2015). Many low-income countries currently face substantial challenges in building national surveillance systems due to a lack of infrastructure and resources,resulting in a shortage of systematic data (FAO/OIE/WHO, 2018)