This 2019 edition of The State of the World’s Children (SOWC) examines the issue of children, food and nutrition, providing a fresh perspective on a rapidly evolving challenge. Despite progress in the past two decades, one third of children under age 5 are malnourished – stunted, wasted or overweight – while two thirds are at risk of malnutrition and hidden hunger because of the poor quality of their diets. At the center of this challenge is a broken food system that fails to provide children with the diets they need to grow healthy. This report also provides new data and analyses of malnutrition in the 21st century and outlines recommendations to put children’s rights at the heart of food systems.
Crecer bien en un mundo en transformación
This guideline examines the evidence and makes recommendations and remarks on the implementation of some of the details of breastfeeding counselling, such as frequency, timing, mode and provider of breastfeeding counselling, to improve breastfeeding practices. The objective of this guideline is to provide global, evidence-informed recommendations on breastfeeding counselling, as a public health intervention, to improve breastfeeding practices among pregnant women and mothers who intend to breastfeed, or are currently breastfeeding, and their infants and children
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Maternal and child malnutrition is a significant public health problem in South Sudan. Among children aged 6-59 months, 31% are stunted, 28% are underweight, and nearly 23% are acutely malnourished of which 13% are estimated to suffer from moderate acute malnutrition and 10% from severe acute malnutrition.
Overall, South Sudan’s nutrition situation is worrisome, with GAM persistently above the emergency threshold in the Greater Upper Nile, Northern Bahr el Ghazal and Warrap states. Though data on micronutrient deficiencies is scanty, Vitamin A Supplementation (VAS) among children 6-59 months stood at only 2.6% in 2010, showing low uptake (SHHS, 2010). This is against a backdrop of high morbidity levels and a negligible proportion of children 6 to 23 months receiving at least the recommended minimum acceptable diet. In order to ensure optimal child growth, it is essential to ensure good nutrition and basic health care from pregnancy through two years of age (the first 1000 days).
Maternal, Infant and Young Child Nutrition Strategic Actions:
1 Endorse and disseminate key policies and regulations
2 Improve maternal nutrition
3 Protect, promote, and support optimal infant and young child feeding practices
4 Support optimal infant and young child feeding in difficult circumstances
5 Ensure intra-sectoral integration (Health and Nutrition)
6 Improve intersectoral integration (food security and livelihood, WASH, protection, education and shelter)
7 Support capacity building and service strengthening
8 Initiate advocacy and social behavioural change communication
9 Sustain research, information, monitoring and evaluation
10 Mobilise resources and support
This document was prepared in response to a need to review and potentially update the current recommendations for the antibiotic treatment of both inpatient and outpatient management of severe acute malnutrition (SAM). The current recommendations (Table 1) are based on guidelines published in 2013 in the WHO Pocketbook for Hospital Care for Children, and the 2013 update on SAM (outpatient management). The global threat of increasing antimicrobial resistance and new data on efficacy and safety profiles requires a re-review of the current evidence to ensure recommendations are the most appropriate. The evidence base for the use of antibiotics in children presenting with uncomplicated SAM has been recently enlarged.
The objectives of this guidance document are to:
1. Strengthen the capacity of country teams to effectively scale up and manage programmes to address severe acute malnutrition
2. Extend the geographic reach of quality treatment for SAM to all vulnerable communities in need
3. Maximize access to appropriate and quality treatment for SAM among all eligible children in the community at all times
4. Aid the formulation and implementation of national policies and strategies that support objectives 1 to 3
5. Aid the creation of an enabling environment that supports objectives 1 to 3 through advocacy, documentation of successful practices, support for operational research, mobilization of resources and collaboration with partners
The duration of breastfeeding and support from health services to improve feeding practices among mothers living with HIV
This operational guidance, developed by WHO, UNICEF and ENN, outlines the duration of breastfeeding and support from health services to improve infant feeding practices among mothers living with HIV. It is intended to be used to complement emergency and sectoral guidelines on health, nutrition and HIV, including specifically infant feeding, prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and paediatric antiretroviral treatment.