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Operational Guide: The Early Warning and Response System (EWARS) for Dengue Outbreaks

World Health Organization WHO; TDR Program, (2018)

This guide is a revised edition to the previous version published in 2017. This updated publication provides programme managers with a user-friendly tool that can: (i) analyse and draw conclusions from historic dengue datasets; (ii) identify appropriate alarm indicators that can predict forthcoming outbreaks at smaller spatial scales; and (iii) use these results and analyses to build an early warning system to detect dengue outbreaks in real time and respond accordingly. This web-based tool can ensure enhanced, fast and secured communication between national and subnational levels, and standardized utilization of surveillance data.

Technical handbook for dengue surveillance, dengue outbreak prediction/detection and outbreak response (“model contingency plan”)

World Health Organization WHO; TDR Program, (2017)

The aim of this “model contingency plan” is to assist programme managers and planners in devel-oping a national, context-specific, dengue outbreak response plan in order to: (a) detect a dengue outbreak at an early stage through clearly defined and validated alarm signals; (b) precisely define when a dengue outbreak has started; and (c) organize an early response to the alarm signals or an “emergency response” once an outbreak has started.

WHO toolkit for the care and support of people affected by complications associated with Zika virus

World Health Organization WHO, (2017)

The WHO Toolkit for the care and support of people affected by complications associated with Zika virus has been developed to serve as a model guide, with the goal of enhancing country preparedness for Zika virus outbreaks. The toolkit is intended to provide a systems approach involving public health planners and managers so that the necessary infrastructure and resources can be identified and incorporated as needed, as well as technical and practical guidance for health care professionals and community workers. The toolkit includes three manuals to provide countries with tools to effectively recognize people affected by Zika virus and deliver comprehensive care and support: Manual for public health planners and managers Manual for health care professionals Manual for community workers

Global Strategy for dengue prevention and control, 2012–2020

R. Velayudhan, Eds.: World Health Organization WHO, (2012)

During the past five decades, the incidence of dengue has increased 30-fold. Some 50–100 million new infections are estimated to occur annually in more than 100 endemic countries, with a documented further spread to previously unaffected areas; every year hundreds of thousands of severe cases arise, including 20 000 deaths; 264 disability-adjusted life years per million population per year are lost , at an estimated cost for ambulatory and hospitalized cases of US$ 514–1394, often affecting very poor populations. The true numbers are probably far worse, since severe underreporting and misclassification of dengue cases have been documented.


Organização Mundial da Saúde , (2006)

A resposta a um surto de cólera focaliza geralmente os aspectos médicos que são importantes para reduzir a mortalidade. Contudo, há necessidade de uma resposta mais abrangente para limitar a propagação da doença. Como a resposta a surtos é geralmente dirigida por profi ssionais médicos, pode haver tendência para negligenciar outros aspectos, tais como problemas ambientais ou de comunicação.

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