Inequality of access to palliative care and symptom relief is one of the greatest disparities in global health care (1). Currently, there is avoidable suffering on a massive scale due to lack of access to palliative care and symptom relief in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) (1). Yet basic palliative care that can prevent or relieve most suffering due to serious or life-threatening health conditions can be taught easily to generalist clinicians, can be provided in the community and requires only simple, inexpensive medicines and equipment. For these reasons, the World Health Assembly (WHA) resolved that palliative care is "an ethical responsibility of health systems"(2). Further, most patients who need palliative care are at home and prefer to remain there. Thus, it is imperative that palliative care be provided in the community as part of primary care. This document was written to assist ministries of health and health care planners, implementers and managers to integrate palliative care and symptom control into primary health care (PHC).
The guide helps network managers and technical experts navigate the steps necessary for gathering, structuring, analyzing and reporting information needed to make strategic plans that improve sustainability and equity.
(Policy Brief, Vol. 5 No. 1 2018)
This study draws on case studies and a systematic literature review to analyse the key interventions used in the Asia Pacific Region to attract and retain health workers in remote and rural areas. Thirty-nine published articles, including the grey literature from the region, were systematically reviewed. These were supplemented with more detailed case studies from Cambodia, China and Viet Nam, selected on the basis of how well they represented the status of socioeconomic development. Twenty-eight key informants, including policymakers, health managers, academic experts and rural health workers, were interviewed for the case studies. The implementation process, effectiveness and contextual factors of the interventions identified were analysed.
Zero Draft for Consultation, 3rd Version, November 2015
Draft May 2011
The first ever nursing and midwifery services policy document in the history of MoPH was developed with the following aims:
1. Create a positive environment for Nursing and Midwifery Policy and Practice
2. Promote education, training and career development for nurses and midwives.
3. Contribute to the strengthening of health systems and services
4. Monitor the development of nursing and midwifery professions and ensure their quality
5. Streamline Nursing and Midwifery Workforce Management
6. Develop Partnerships for Nursing and Midwifery Services
[Preface]. For more than forty years Primary Health Care (PHC) has been recognized as the cornerstone of an effective and responsive health system. The Alma-Ata Declaration of 1978 reaffirmed the right to the highest attainable level of health, with equity, solidarity and the right to health as its core values. It stressed the need for comprehensive health services, not only curative but services that addressed needs in terms of health promotion, prevention, rehabilitation and treatment of common conditions. A strong resolutive first level of care is the basis for health system development [...] The Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization (PAHO/WHO) has supported the countries in the establishment of interprofessional PHC teams, in the transformation of health education and in building capacity in the strategic planning, and management of human resources for health. Nursing can play a critical role in advancing PHC. New profiles such as the advanced practice nurses, as discussed in this document, can be fundamental in this effort, and in particular, in health promotion, disease prevention and care, especially in rural and underserved areas.