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HIV and tuberculosis co-infection programmes

Avert, (2019)


People living with HIV who have a low CD4 count are at a much higher risk of falling ill from TB infection than HIV negative people. It is important to offer both HIV testing to TB patients and TB diagnosis in HIV patients. Early detection and effective treatment are essential to preventing TB-associated deaths. WHO and UNAIDS have strongly advised countries to ensure that HIV programmes integrate regular TB screening, preventive therapy and early treatment.
https://www.avert.org/professionals/hiv-programmin...


Xpert MTB/RIF increases timely TB detection among people living with HIV and saves lives

World Health Organization, (2014)


People living with HIV (PLHIV) have more than a 20-fold increased risk of TB compared to HIV-uninfected people. (1) Diagnosing TB is a particular challenge among PLHIV who are more likely to have smear – negative pulmonary TB .This results in a delay in the detection of TB and in subsequent start of treatment. As a result, HIV-related TB deaths are a significant public health problem facing HIV-prevalent settings. Compared to sputum smear microscopy, which has limited utility among PLHIV, Xpert MTB/RIF is able to detect more TB cases regardless of HIV status. For this reason, WHO recommends Xpert MTB/RIF as a primary diagnostic test for TB in PLHIV.
https://www.who.int/hiv/topics/tb/note_xpert_mtb_r...


Los costos de la tuberculosis para los pacientes: Manual práctico para la realización de encuestas

Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), (2018)


En este manual se presenta un método estandarizado para realizar, desde los centros de salud, encuestas transversales que permitan calcular los costos directos e indirectos que afectan a los pacientes con tuberculosis y a sus hogares, a partir de la experiencia acumulada con un instrumento diseñado previamente y un protocolo piloto probado por la OMS. El manual está dirigido especialmente a los programas nacionales de tuberculosis y a las entidades que colaboran en la planificación, ejecución, evaluación e Investigación operativa de los programas de tuberculosis.
http://iris.paho.org/xmlui/bitstream/handle/123456...


WHO Guidelines on tuberculosis infection prevention and control, 2019 update

World Health Organization (WHO), (2019)


The revised guidelines contain recommendations for specific administrative, environmental controls and respiratory protection, following the assessment made by an external group of experts convened as members of the Guideline Development Group. Moreover, these guidelines focus on interventions specific to preventing transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis bridging with the core components of infection prevention and control programmes at the national and acute health care facility level
https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/3...


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