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Establishment of PCR laboratory in developing countries, 2nd ed.

World Health Organization ( WHO), Regional Office for South-East-Asia, (2016)


Polymerase Chain Reaction (‎PCR)‎ has significantly helped in early diagnosis and commencement of specific interventions for diseases control. It also plays a critical role in understanding the disease epidemiology and unraveling the transmission dynamics of the disease. This manual intends to provide primary guidelines to assist health lab personnel in developing countries to establish a PCR diagnostic facility for efficient support to patient care as well as public health actions.
http://apps.searo.who.int/PDS_DOCS/B5256.pdf


Core and Reference Indicators for Monitoring Traditional and Complementary Medicine in South-East Asia

World Health Organization (WHO), Regional Office for South-East-Asia, (2017)


The document contains a set of indicators that can be used for monitoring traditional and complementary medicine (T&CM) systems in a country.
The core indicator set consists of 16 indicators that were considered essential and collectively able to provide information on T&CM inputs, processes and outputs. A longer list of reference indicators is also available for countries that wish to monitor more indicators or that want to consider alternative metrics that would better suit each country’s T&CM situation, priorities and monitoring capacities.
Each core and reference indicator is accompanied by a set of metadata. This provides information on the indicator rationale, definitions, data elements (numerator, denominator and data disaggregation), frequency of measurement, and data sources. It is a guide towards more standardized data measurement as well as data interpretation.
http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/25...


The medicinal plants of Myanmar

DeFilipps, Robert A.; Krupnick, Gary A., (2018)


PhytoKeys 102: 1–341 (2018)
A comprehensive compilation is provided of the medicinal plants of the Southeast Asian country of Myanmar (formerly Burma). This contribution, containing 123 families, 367 genera, and 472 species, was compiled from earlier treatments, monographs, books, and pamphlets, with some medicinal uses and preparations translated from Burmese to English. The entry for each species includes the Latin binomial, author(s), common Myanmar and English names, range, medicinal uses and preparations, and additional notes. Of the 472 species, 63 or 13% of them have been assessed for conservation status and are listed in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (IUCN 2017). Two species are listed as Extinct in the Wild, four as Threatened (two Endangered, two Vulnerable), two as Near Threatened, 48 Least Concerned, and seven Data Deficient. Botanic gardens worldwide hold 444 species (94%) within their living collections, while 28 species (6%) are not found any botanic garden. Preserving the traditional knowledge of Myanmar healers contributes to Target 13 of the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation.
https://doi.org/10.3897/phytokeys.102.24380
https://phytokeys.pensoft.net/article/24380/downlo...


Medicinal plants for forest conservation and health care

Bodeker, Gerard (Ed.), Eds.: Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), (1997)


Non-Wood Forest Products 11
Traditional medicine and its use of medicinal plants is dependent on reliable supply of plant materials. The book focuses on the interface between medicinal plant use and conservation of medicinal plants.
http://www.fao.org/3/a-w7261e.pdf


Establishing external quality assessment programmes for screening of donated blood for transfusion-transmissible infections: implementation guide

World Health Organization (WHO), (2016)


External quality assessment (EQA) is an important component of quality systems for blood transfusion services. Establishing external quality assessment programmes for screening of donated blood for transfusion-transmissible infections (TTI): implementation guide aims to support WHO member States in establishing and operating EQA programmes for screening donated blood for TTI. The guides has been designed for use by national health authorities and EQA organizing institutions in the development of EQA programme. It will also give participating laboratories an insight into the organization of EQA programmes for TTI screening and an understanding of the benefits of participation.
http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/24...


Mise en place de programmes d’évaluation externe de la qualité appliqués au dépistage des infections transmissibles par transfusion dans les dons de sang : guide pratique

Organisation mondiale de la Santé (OMS), (2016)


L’évaluation externe de la qualité (EEQ) est une composante importante des systèmes qualité des services de transfusion sanguine. L’EEQ est l’évaluation externe de la qualité générale des résultats obtenus par un laboratoire dans l’analyse d’échantillons de contrôle dont le contenu est connu, mais n’a pas été dévoilé, et la comparaison de ces résultats avec ceux qu’ont obtenus d’autres laboratoires qui ont analysé les mêmes échantillons. Dans les laboratoires qui pratiquent le dépistage des infections transmissibles par transfusion (ITT) dans les dons de sang, la participation à l’EEQ aide à surveiller et améliorer la qualité des résultats. Les informations issues de l’EEQ permettent d’améliorer continuellement la qualité en mettant en évidence les erreurs d’un laboratoire et d’appliquer des mesures pour éviter qu’elles se reproduisent. L’EEQ joue ainsi un rôle essentiel dans l’amélioration de la sécurité transfusionnelle.
http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/25...


Dépistage des infections transmissibles par transfusion dans les dons de sang: recommandations

Organisation mondiale de la Santé (OMS), (2010)


La fourniture de sang et de produits sanguins sûrs et efficaces pour la transfusion ou la fabrication d’autres produits sanguins fait intervenir un certain nombre de processus, allant de la sélection des donneurs de sang et de la collecte, au traitement et au dépistage des dons de sang ainsi qu’à l’analyse des échantillons des malades, à la délivrance de sang compatible et à son administration au patient. Il existe un risque d’erreur à chaque étape de la « chaîne de transfusion », et une défaillance à une quelconque de ces étapes peut avoir des conséquences graves pour les receveurs du sang ou des produits sanguins. Si la transfusion sanguine peut sauver des vies, elle comporte aussi des risques, en particulier la transmission des infections par le sang.
Le dépistage des infections transmissibles par transfusion (ITT) en vue d’exclure les dons de sang présentant un risque de transmettre une infection du donneur aux receveurs est une étape critique du processus visant à garantir au mieux la sécurité des transfusions. Un dépistage efficace des agents transmissibles par le sang les plus courants et les plus dangereux peut réduire le risque de transmission à des niveaux très faibles.
http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/11...


Screening donated blood for transfusion-transmissible infections: recommendations

World Health Organization (WHO), (2009)


The provision of safe and efficacious blood and blood components for transfusion or manufacturing use involves a number of processes, from the selection of blood donors and the collection, processing and testing of blood donations to the testing of patient samples, the issue of compatible blood and its administration to the patient. There is a risk of error in each process in this “transfusion chain” and a failure at any of these stages can have serious implications for the recipients of blood and blood products. Thus, while blood transfusion can be life-saving, there are associated risks, particularly the transmission of bloodborne infections.
Screening for transfusion-transmissible infections (TTIs) to exclude blood donations at risk of transmitting infection from donors to recipients is a critical part of the process of ensuring that transfusion is as safe as possible. Effective screening for evidence of the presence of the most common and dangerous TTIs can reduce the risk of transmission to very low levels.
http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/44...


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