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UN Children's Fund UNICEF, (2019)

Technical Note on Antimicrobial Resistance This document reflects UNICEF’s response to the growing global threat of AMR to child survival, growth and development. It identifies UNICEF’s AMR-specific and AMR-sensitive actions in reducing infections, promoting access to and optimal use of antimicrobials, and increasing AMR awareness and understanding. Of particular relevance to this group, UNICEF country offices are directed to provide technical support for development and implementation of national AMR action plans, linking them as appropriate to maternal, newborn and child health programmes and ensuring these are prioritized in both surveillance and policy changes. The guidance note on AMR is intended to inform UNICEF’s AMR-related internal initiatives, programming and activities, as well as external engagements with governments and other stakeholders.

Antimicrobial Resistance Global Report on Surveillance

World Health Organization (WHO), (2014)

The report focuses on antibacterial resistance (ABR) in common bacterial pathogens. There is a major gap in knowledge about the magnitude of this problem. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) threatens the effective revention and treatment of an ever-increasing range of infections caused by bacteria, parasites, viruses and fungi. This WHO report, produced in collaboration with Member States and other partners, provides for the first time, as accurate a picture as is presently possible of the magnitude of AMR and the current state of surveillance globally. It examines the information on AMR, in particular antibacterial resistance (ABR), at country level worldwide.

Core Elements of Hospital Antibiotic Stewardship Programs

Eds.: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), (2014)

A growing body of evidence demonstrates that hospital based programs dedicated to improving antibiotic use, commonly referred to as “Antibiotic Stewardship Programs (ASPs),” can both optimize the treatment of infections and reduce adverse events associated with antibiotic use. This document summarizes core elements of successful hospital Antibiotic Stewardship Programs. It complements existing guidelines on ASPs from different American organizations.

Checklist for Core Elements of Hospital Antibiotic Stewardship Programs

Eds.: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), (2014)

The following checklist is a companion to Core Elements of Hospital Antibiotic Stewardship Programs. This checklist should be used to systematically assess key elements and actions to ensure optimal antibiotic prescribing and limit overuse and misuse of antibiotics in hospitals. CDC recommends that all hospitals implement an Antibiotic Stewardship Program.

Step-by-Step Approach for Development and Implementation of Hospital Antibiotic Policy and Standard Treatment Guidelines

World Health Organization, (2011)

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has emerged as a major public health problem all over the world. Infections caused by resistant microbes fail to respond to treatment, resulting in prolonged illness and greater risk of death. This document focuses on the mechanism to develop a practically applicable hospital antibiotic policy and standard treatment guidelines (STG). In addition, the document contains information on various effective strategies for implementation of STG. It also discusses various activities and information required for the development of the antibiogram, antibiotic policy and standard treatment guidelines, such as surveillance programmes, the cause and controlling strategies for AMR and HAI; performance measures of antibiogram, antibiotic policy and standard treatment guidelines. A model hospital STG for community-acquired pneumonia in adults is included.

FAQs - Frequently asked questions on Antimicrobial resistance

Eds.: World Health Organization (WHO), Regional Office for South-East Asia, (2011)

Where There Are No Pharmacists

Sarah Andersson; Beverley Snell, Eds.: Third World Network; Health Action International Asia Pacific, (2019)

2nd edition. A Guide to Managing Medicines for All Health Workers. Available for purchase via following link Where there are no trained pharmacists serving communities, other categories of health workers are called upon to order, buy, store, dispense and advise people on rational use of medicines. Where There Are No Pharmacists explains how to order them, store them, prepare them, dispense them and use them safely and effectively - it is about managing medicines. Information to help communities benefit from the use of medicines is also included. This book walks readers through each step, covering topics ranging from policy issues to patient education. It provides guidance for anyone who is doing the work of a pharmacist; anyone who sells, dispenses, prepares, manages, or explains to others how to use medicines.

The Oxford Statement on Medicine Quality and Public Health


In September, 2018, the first international Medicine Quality and Public Health Conference was held at Oxford University, UK, to discuss opportunities and solutions to ensure that all people have access to affordable and quality-assured medical products. Delegates developed the short Oxford Statement, calling for investment, policy change, and action to eliminate substandard and falsified medical products. The statement was born out of discussion between governments, national and international agencies, non-governmental organisations, professional associations, and academic institutions who together examined the latest evidence on the epidemiology and public health implications of substandard and falsified medical products.

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