The Access to Controlled Medications Programme identified the development of treatment guidelines that cover the treatment of all types of pain as one of the core areas of focus for improving access to opioid analgesics. Such guidelines are interesting both for health-care professionals and policy-makers. They are also important in improving access to controlled medicines for determining when those opioid medicines and when non-opioid medicines are preferred.
Based on a Delphi study, WHO planned the development of three treatment guidelines, covering chronic pain in children, chronic pain in adults and acute pain.
A Guide for low income countries
This is a pocket-sized manual for use by doctors, senior nurses and other senior health workers who are responsible for the care of young children at the first referral level in developing countries. It presents up-to-date clinical guidelines which are based on a review of the available published evidence by subject experts, for both inpatient and outpatient care in small hospitals where basic laboratory facilities and essential drugs and inexpensive medicines are available. It focuses on the inpatient management of the major causes of childhood mortality, such as pneumonia, diarrhoea, severe malnutrition, malaria, meningitis, measles, HIV infection and related conditions. It covers neonatal problems and surgical conditions of children which can be managed in small hospitals. This pocket book is part of a series of documents and tools that support the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI).
Accessed April 2014
Identify Signs of Illness : Photo 1 and 2. Chest indrawing
Photo 3. Severe malnutrition (marasmus)
Photo 4, 5, and 6. Using a MUAC strap
Photo 7. Severe malnutrition (kwashiorkor)
Photo 8 and 9. Checking for swelling of both feet
With notes to the facilitator (NTF)