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Determinants of anemia among women and children in Nepal and Pakistan: An analysis of recent national survey data

Harding, Kassandra L.; Aguayo, Victor M. et al., (2017)

Maternal Child Nutrition. 2017;e12478
This paper analyzes individual level and household level determinants of anemia among children and women in Nepal and Pakistan. Applying multivariate modified Poisson models to recent national survey data, we find that the prevalence of anemia was significantly higher among women from the poorest households in Pakistan (adjusted prevalence ratio [95% CI]: 1.10 [1.04–1.17]), women lacking sanitation facilities in Nepal (1.22 [1.12–1.33]), and among undernourished women (BMI < 18.5 kg/m2) in both countries (Nepal: 1.10 [1.00–1.21] and Pakistan: 1.07 [1.02–1.13]). Similarly, children in both countries were more likely to be anemic if stunted (Nepal: 1.19 [1.09–1.30] and Pakistan: 1.10 [1.07–1.14]) and having an anemic mother (Nepal: 1.31 [1.20–1.42] and Pakistan: 1.21 [1.17–1.26]).


Every Preemie—SCALE, (2017)

The information provided here can be used to understand the current situation, increase attention to preterm births in Rwanda and to inform dialogue and action among stakeholders. Data can be used to identify the most important risk factors to target and gaps in care in order to identify and implement solutions for improved outcomes.


Save the Children International, (2017)

This study was an exploratory situation analysis assessing public and private service providers knowledge, attitudes and practice to treat possible severe bacterial infection (PSBI) among children less than six months of age.

Newborn Health Interventions and Challenges for Implementation in Nepal.

Khatri RB, Mishra SR, Khanal V, Gelal K and Neupane S, Eds.: Front. Public Health, (2016)

Neonatal mortality is a major challenge in reducing child mortality rates in Nepal. Despite efforts by the Government of Nepal, data from the last three demographic and health surveys show a rise in the contribution of neonatal deaths to infant and child mortality. The Government of Nepal has implemented community-based programs that were piloted and then scaled up based on lessons learned. These programs include, but are not limited to ensuring safe motherhood, birth preparedness package, community-based newborn care package, and integrated management of childhood illnesses. Despite the implementation of such programs on a larger scale, their effective coverage is yet to be achieved. Health system challenges included an inadequate policy environment, funding gaps, inadequate procurement, and insufficient supplies of commodities, while human resource management has been found to be impeding service delivery. Such bottlenecks at policy, institutional and service delivery level need to be addressed incorporating health information in decision-making as well as working in partnership with communities to facilitate the utilization of available services.

Neonatal resuscitation – Understanding challenges & identifying a strategy for implementation in Nepal

Ashish, K.C. , Eds.: Uppsala Universitet, (2016)

Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine | The aim of this study was to explore the risk factors for stillbirth and neonatal death and change in perinatal outcomes after the introduction of helping Babies Breathe Quality Improvement Cycle in Nepal.

Beyond the Rhetoric: Maternal, Newborn and Child Survival in Nepal

Sharma, G. & Pandey, S.R., Eds.: Nepal Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (NJOG), (2015)

Nepal has performed exceptionally in improving reproductive, maternal and child health outcomes over the past two decades. In this article, we discuss these achievements and outline a vision for the future of maternal, newborn and child survival in Nepal after the era of the Millennium Development Goals. On the pathway towards quality universal health care services for all, we propose strengthening of health information systems, gradual health system reforms, improvement of existing facility based services, development of integrated service delivery models, improved technical and managerial capacity at district and facility levels. Elimination of all preventable causes of maternal, newborn and child deaths in Nepal should be our collective aspirational goal.

A Synthesis of Recent Studies on Maternal and Newborn Survival Interventions in Nepal

Child Health Division, Family Health Division, Ministry of Health, Save the Children Nepal, (2014)

The aim of this report is to: (1) synthesize the findings from selected maternal and newborn related studies in Nepal conducted during 2011-2014, (2) identify areas of improvement in existing interventions, and (3) recommend possible strategies to fulfill such gaps.

Neonatal health in Nepal: analysis of absolute and relative inequalities and impact of current efforts to reduce neonatal mortality

Paudel, D., Shrestha, I.B., Siebeck, M. & Rehfuess, E.A. , (2013)

Nepal has made substantial progress in reducing under-five mortality and is on track to achieve Millennium Development Goal 4, but advances in neonatal health are less encouraging. The objectives of this study were to assess relative and absolute inequalities in neonatal mortality over time, and to review experience with major programs to promote neonatal health.

Newborn survival in Nepal: a decade of change and future implications

Pradhan, Y.V., Upreti, S.R., Pratap, K.C.N, et al. , Eds.: Health Policy and Planning, (2012)

Nepal is on target to meet the Millennium Development Goals for maternal and child health despite high levels of poverty, poor infrastructure, difficult terrain and recent conflict. Each year, nearly 35000 Nepali children die before their fifth birthday, with almost two-thirds of these deaths occurring in the first month of life, the neonatal period. As part of a multi-country analysis, we examined changes for newborn survival between 2000 and 2010 in terms of mortality, coverage and health system indicators as well as national and donor funding. Over the decade, Nepal’s neonatal mortality rate reduced by 3.6% per year, which is faster than the regional average (2.0%) but slower than national annual progress for mortality of children aged 1–59 months (7.7%) and maternal mortality (7.5%). A dramatic reduction in the total fertility rate, improvements in female education and increasing change in skilled birth attendance, as well as increased coverage of community-based child health interventions, are likely to have contributed to these mortality declines. Political commitment and support for newborn survival has been generated through strategic use of global and national data and effective partnerships using primarily a selective newborn-focused approach for advocacy and planning. Nepal was the first low-income country to have a national newborn strategy, influencing similar strategies in other countries. The Community-Based Newborn Care Package is delivered through the nationally available Female Community Health Volunteers and was piloted in 10 of 75 districts, with plans to increase to 35 districts in mid-2013. Innovation and scale up, especially of community-based packages, and public health interventions and commodities appear to move relatively rapidly in Nepal compared with some other countries. Much remains to be done to achieve high rates of effective coverage of community care, and especially to improve the quality of facility-based care given the rapid shift to births in facilities.

Nepal: Countdown to 2015 - Maternal, Newborn & Child Survival

Countdown to 2030 Commission, (2015)

The Countdown country profile presents in one place the best and latest evidence to enable an assessment of a country’s progress in improving reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health (RMNCH)

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