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Working with Children in Unstable Situations: Principles and Concepts to Guide Psychosocial Responses

United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF), (2003)

This document is designed to provide UNICEF staff and UNICEF partner staff with principles and concepts that can assist them to respond to the psychosocial needs of children in natural disasters and social emergencies such as armed conflict and other forms of violence. It aims to introduce humanitarian workers to psychosocial principles and UNICEF’s position on these principles. It also provides a number of examples from field work of how these principles have been turned into concrete actions. These psychosocial principles and concepts inform both emergency responses and subsequent programmatic responses post-emergency.

Psychosocial Support of Children Psychosocial Support of Children In Emergencies

United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), (2009)

‘Psychosocial Support of Children in Emergencies’ is a reference document for humanitarian workers who want to increase their understanding of the experiences of children in emergency situations and how to support them in mitigating the negative effects of these experiences and how to prevent further harm. While the book is not designed to be a day-to-day programming tool, it outlines UNICEF’s orientation to the psychosocial principles integral to any work with children and provides a number of examples from field work of how these principles can be turned into concrete actions.

No Place to Call Home. Protecting children´s rights when the changing climate forces them to flee. For every child in danger.

UNICEF, Eds.: UNICEF, (2015)

Around the world, approximately 1 in 45 children are on the move – nearly 50 million boys and girls that have migrated across borders or been forcibly displaced within their own countries.1 Climate-related events and their impacts are already contributing significantly to these staggering numbers,with 14.7 million people facing new internal displacement as a result of weather-related disasters in 2015 alone. The annual average since 2008 is higher still, at 21.5 million, equivalent to almost 2,500 people being displaced every single day.2

tsunami ten years on, stories of change 2004–2014: Community Perceptions of the Indian Ocean Tsunami Response and Recovery

Andy Featherstone, Eds.: Save the Children, (2014)

The objective of this study is to analyze the strengths, weaknesses, sustainability, and impact of the tsunami response in Sri Lanka and Indonesia 10 years later. A cross cutting theme of this study is the assessment of whether communities are now better prepared to respond to and cope with disaster. Three key lessons for the future of humanitarian response are highlighted: Lesson 1: Participation is the cornerstone of humanitarian response and recovery; Lesson 2: Partnership as a prerequisite for long-term change; Lesson 3: Creating momentum for risk reduction.

East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami Disaster: Three-Year Report — Building Resilient Communities with Children

Japan Committee for UNICEF (JCU), Eds.: UNICEF, (2014)

The Japan Committee for UNICEF (JCU) has for years endeavored to disseminate important information about children in developing countries and UNICEF’s various assistance programmes there, as well as to fundraise to support those programmes. Unprecedented damage caused by the East Japan Earthquake, however, forced us to ask ourselves what we could do to help, and we wasted no time in contacting UNICEF Headquarters in New York.

Trauma symptoms in children after the tsunami

Gunaratne, C., Kremer, P.J., Lewis, A.J. & Clarke, V., Eds.: Sri Lanka Journal of Child Health, (2013)

Limited research has examined factors associated with psychological distress following natural disasters among non-Western child populations. Conditions associated with trauma-related symptoms following the 2004 tsunami in a sample of 265 Sri Lankan child survivors (53.6% female, aged 3 to 17) were examined retrospectively. Multivariate regression analyses identified pre-traumatic conditions (female gender, prior health) and peritraumatic conditions (loss of family, complete property loss) as being associated with increased trauma-related symptoms. Findings can be applied to the identification of children most at risk of developing trauma-related symptoms following a natural disaster from a non-Western population to aid development of culturally-appropriate interventions.

Psychosocial Issues for Children and Adolescents in Disasters

Speier, A.H., Eds.: DHHS Publication, (2005)

This manual provides information and guidance for individuals concerned with the mental health needs of children who experience major disasters. This background, training, and experience will vary and may include health and mental health professionals, professional and paraprofessional social service personnel, school and daycare personnel, clergy, volunteers, and parents.

Children’s Vantage Point of Recalling Traumatic Events (RESEARCH ARTICLE)

Katie S. Dawson, Richard A. Bryant, Eds.: PLOS ONE, (2015)

This study investigated the recollections of child survivors of the 2004 Asian tsunami in terms of their vantage point and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) responses. Five years after the tsunami, 110 children (aged 7–13 years) living in Aceh, Indonesia were assessed for source of memories of the tsunami (personal memory or second-hand source), vantage point of the memory, and were administered the Children’s Revised Impact of Event Scale-13. PLoSONE 11(9):e0162030.doi:10.1371/journal.

Practice Parameter on Disaster Preparedness

Pfefferbaum, B., Shaw, J.A. & American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP) Committee on Quality Issues (CQI), Eds.: American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP), (2013)

AACAP OFFICIAL ACTION | This Practice Parameter identifies best approaches to the assessment and management of children and adolescents across all phases of a disaster. Delivered within a disaster system of care, many interventions are appropriate for implementation in the weeks and months after a disaster. These include psychological first aid, family outreach, psychoeducation, social support, screening, and anxiety reduction techniques. The clinician should assess and monitor risk and protective factors across all phases of a disaster. Schools are a natural site for conducting assessments and delivering services to children. Multimodal approaches using social support, psychoeducation, and cognitive behavioral techniques have the strongest evidence base. Psychopharmacologic interventions are not generally used but may be necessary as an adjunct to other interventions for children with severe reactions or coexisting psychiatric conditions

Child labour report 2017 - The Neglected Link: effects of climate change and environmental degradation on child labour

Lisa Myers, Laura Theytaz-Bergman, Eds.: Terre des hommes, (2017)

Over half a billion children are living in areas with extremely high levels of floods and nearly 160 million children live in areas of high or extremely high droughts. The World Health Organisation (WHO) estimates that 26% of the annual 6.6 million deaths of children under five are linked to environment-related causes and conditions. Children are also disproportionately affected by pollution, not only in terms of death rates, but also in terms of cognitive and physical development. This report illustrates that environmental causes also have an impact on whether children are pushed to work and on the kind of work they engage in, the conditions of work, exposure to dangerous toxicants and the risk of exploitation. However, the report raises more questions than it answers as it is one of the first reports addressing the question, how environmental degradation and climate change affect the vulnerability of children towards exploitation.

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