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NO PLACE TO CALL HOME. Protecting children´s rights when the changing climate forces them to flee. For every child in danger.

UNICEF, Eds.: UNICEF, (2015)

Around the world, approximately 1 in 45 children are on the move – nearly 50 million boys and girls that have migrated across borders or been forcibly displaced within their own countries.1 Climate-related events and their impacts are already contributing significantly to these staggering numbers,with 14.7 million people facing new internal displacement as a result of weather-related disasters in 2015 alone. The annual average since 2008 is higher still, at 21.5 million, equivalent to almost 2,500 people being displaced every single day.2

tsunami ten years on, stories of change 2004–2014: Community Perceptions of the Indian Ocean Tsunami Response and Recovery

Andy Featherstone, Eds.: Save the Children, (2014)

The objective of this study is to analyze the strengths, weaknesses, sustainability, and impact of the tsunami response in Sri Lanka and Indonesia 10 years later. A cross cutting theme of this study is the assessment of whether communities are now better prepared to respond to and cope with disaster. Three key lessons for the future of humanitarian response are highlighted: Lesson 1: Participation is the cornerstone of humanitarian response and recovery; Lesson 2: Partnership as a prerequisite for long-term change; Lesson 3: Creating momentum for risk reduction.

Guía del IASC sobre Salud Mental y Apoyo Psicosocial en Emergencias Humanitarias y Catástrofes

Inter-Agency Standing Committee , (2007)

El Comité Permanente entre Organismos (IASC) ha elaborado esta Guía para posibilitar que quienes participan en acciones de ayuda humanitaria planifiquen, establezcan y coordinen un conjunto mínimo de respuestas multisectoriales para proteger y mejorar la salud mental y el bienestar psicosocial de las personas que atraviesan por situaciones de catástrofe. Las poblaciones afectadas por situaciones de emergencia humanitaria suelen padecer enormes sufrimientos.

East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami Disaster: Three-Year Report — Building Resilient Communities with Children

Japan Committee for UNICEF (JCU), Eds.: UNICEF, (2014)

The Japan Committee for UNICEF (JCU) has for years endeavored to disseminate important information about children in developing countries and UNICEF’s various assistance programmes there, as well as to fundraise to support those programmes. Unprecedented damage caused by the East Japan Earthquake, however, forced us to ask ourselves what we could do to help, and we wasted no time in contacting UNICEF Headquarters in New York. UNICEF Headquarters decided to dispatch Japanese experts working at UNICEF offices all over the world to the affected areas in Japan, and JCU followed by launching a campaign to provide emergency relief supplies to shelters and other facilities in those areas. Thanks to the cooperation of countless companies, groups, and three prefectural JCU associations, we were able to successfully secure relief supplies and transportation despite a dire situation, where much needed supplies and fuel were in short supply across the country. We also received more than ¥4.7 billion in donations from across Japan and other countries. Over the next six months, we then expanded our response campaign beyond just the provision of emergency relief supplies to encompass six areas, including the implementation of: 1) health and nutrition; 2) education; 3) psychosocial support; 4) child protection; 5) and child-friendly reconstruction plans. Three years have now passed since that unforgettable day. As a member of the UNICEF family, we are dedicated to fulfilling our obligation to support children in developing countries—our traditional mission. As you will read in this report, in the affected areas we continue to support local reconstruction efforts with the cooperation of domestic experts, specialist organizations, and local governments.

Trauma symptoms in children after the tsunami

Gunaratne, C., Kremer, P.J., Lewis, A.J. & Clarke, V., Eds.: Sri Lanka Journal of Child Health, (2013)

Limited research has examined factors associated with psychological distress following natural disasters among non-Western child populations. Conditions associated with trauma-related symptoms following the 2004 tsunami in a sample of 265 Sri Lankan child survivors (53.6% female, aged 3 to 17) were examined retrospectively. Multivariate regression analyses identified pre-traumatic conditions (female gender, prior health) and peritraumatic conditions (loss of family, complete property loss) as being associated with increased trauma-related symptoms. Findings can be applied to the identification of children most at risk of developing trauma-related symptoms following a natural disaster from a non-Western population to aid development of culturally-appropriate interventions.

Tips for Talking With and Helping Children and Youth Cope After a Disaster or Traumatic Event: A GUIDE FOR PARENTS, CAREGIVERS, AND TEACHERS

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), Eds.: HHS Publication, (2013)

Children and youth can face emotional strains after a traumatic event such as a car crash or violence. Disasters also may leave them with long-lasting harmful effects. When children experience a trauma, watch it on TV, or overhear others discussing it, they can feel scared, confused, or anxious. Young people react to trauma differently than adults. Some may react right away; others may show signs that they are having a difficult time much later. As such, adults do not always know when a child needs help coping. This tip sheet will help parents, caregivers, and teachers learn some common reactions, respond in a helpful way, and know when to seek support.

Where the heart is: Meeting the psychosocial needs of young children in the context of HIV/AIDS

Richter, L., Foster, G. and Sherr, L. , Eds.: Bernard van Leer Foundation, (2006)

An output of a series of workshops on psychosocial support held in 2004-2005 by the Bernard van Leer Foundation and the Coalition on Children Affected by AIDS. Authors Linda Richter, Geoff Foster and Lorraine Sherr discuss the issues surrounding psychosocial care and support for children made vulnerable by the HIV/AIDS pandemic and make recommendations for future priorities and programming directions. Includes the ""Call To Action"" for Toronto 2006.

Psychosocial Issues for Children and Adolescents in Disasters

Speier, A.H., Eds.: DHHS Publication, (2005)

This manual provides information and guidance for individuals concerned with the mental health needs of children who experience major disasters. This background, training, and experience will vary and may include health and mental health professionals, professional and paraprofessional social service personnel, school and daycare personnel, clergy, volunteers, and parents.

Comorbidity of post-traumatic stress disorder and anxiety in flood survivors: Prevalence and shared risk factors

Dai, W., Kaminga, A.C., Tan, H., Wang, J., Lai, Z., Wu, X., Xiong, Y., Deng, J. & Liu, A., Eds.: Medicine, (2017)

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and anxiety are both prevalent in trauma-related populations. However, comorbidity of these 2 psychiatric disorders has not been investigated in flood survivors. This study aimed to estimate the extent to which PTSD and anxiety co-occur in flood survivors, and identify shared risk factors for PTSD only and comorbidity of PTSD and anxiety. Individuals who experienced Dongting Lake flood in 1998 were enrolled in this study using stratified and systematic random sampling method. Information on social support, personality traits, PTSD, and anxiety was collected using self-report questionnaires. The intensity of exposure to the flood was measured by some questions. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with PTSD only and comorbidity of PTSD and anxiety.In all, 325 participants were enrolled in this study. The prevalence of PTSD, anxiety, and comorbidity of PTSD and anxiety among survivors of the 1998 Dongting Lake flood at 17-year follow-up was 9.54%, 9.23%, and 6.15%, respectively. Furthermore, 64.52% of those with PTSD had anxiety and 66.67% of those with anxiety had PTSD. Loss of relative, injury of body, damage of house, and emotional instability were shared risk factors for PTSD only and comorbidity of PTSD and anxiety, in comparison with neither PTSD nor anxiety.Post-traumatic stress disorder only and comorbidity of PTSD and anxiety are prevalent in flood survivors, and are both related to the intensity of exposure to the flood and personality traits, indicating that integrated intervention strategies of PTSD and anxiety for flood survivors are needed.

Children’s Vantage Point of Recalling Traumatic Events (RESEARCH ARTICLE)

Katie S. Dawson, Richard A. Bryant, Eds.: PLOS ONE, (2015)

This study investigated the recollections of child survivors of the 2004 Asian tsunami in terms of their vantage point and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) responses. Five years after the tsunami, 110 children (aged 7–13 years) living in Aceh, Indonesia were assessed for source of memories of the tsunami (personal memory or second-hand source), vantage point of the memory, and were administered the Children’s Revised Impact of Event Scale-13. Fifty-three children (48%) met criteria for PTSD. Two-thirds of children reported direct memories of the tsunami and one-third reported having memories based on reports from other people. More children (97%) who reported an indirect memory of the tsunami recalled the event from an onlooker’s perspective to some extent than those who recalled the event directly (63%). Boys were more likely to rely on stories from others to reconstruct their memory of the tsunami, and to adopt an observer perspective. Boys who adopted an observer’s perspective had less severe PTSD than those who adopted a field perspective. These findings suggest that, at least in the case of boys, an observer perspectives of trauma can be associated with levels of PTSD.

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