DHS Working Paper No. 136
A total of 1,222 children age 6-23 months were included in this analysis. Twenty percent of children were stunted and 43% were moderately anemic. Regarding IYCF practices, only 16% of children received a minimum acceptable diet, 25% received diverse food groups, 58% were fed with minimum meal frequency, 85% currently breastfed, and 59% consumed iron-rich foods. Breastfeeding reduced the odds of being stunted. By background characteristics, male sex, perceived small birth size, children of short stature, and children of working mother were significant predictors of stunting. Iron-rich food consumption was inversely associated with moderate anemia. Among covariates, male sex and maternal anemia were also significant predictors of moderate anemia among children age 6-23 months.
The study concluded that stunting and anemia among young children in Myanmar are major public health challenges that need urgent action.
The 2015-16 MDHS is a national sample survey that provides up-to-date information on fertility levels; marriage; fertility preferences; awareness and use of family planning methods; child feeding practices; nutrition; adult and childhood mortality; awareness and attitudes regarding HIV/AIDS; women’s empowerment; and domestic violence. The target groups were women and men age 15-49 residing in randomly selected households across the country. In addition to national estimates, the report provides estimates of key indicators for both urban and rural areas in Myanmar and also for the 15 states and regions.
Policy Note #4: Myanmar Health Systems in Transition Policy Notes Series
Protecting people from financial hardship when they fall ill is one of the two key elements of universal health coverage (UHC). In practice, this means that the majority of health care costs have to be met from government revenues so that services are provided free or with a small affordable co-payment. The alternative is to rely on pre-payment through some form of insurance, where risks are pooled across all contributors.
The challenge in Myanmar is that at present neither approach is functioning. Government spending is too low to meet people’s health needs and the proportion of the population covered by insurance is negligible. As a result, families face a stark choice in the event of serious illness: either defer treatment and face the consequences, or incur what can amount to catastrophic expenses and a downward spiral of disinvestment and poverty.
Policy Note #2: Myanmar Health Systems in Transition Policy Notes Series
Myanmar is a country in which people’s access to health services is determined more by where they live than their need for care – a situation that is fundamentally inequitable. The challenge is to reduce levels of inequity between different groups in the population and different geographical areas, and most particularly to ensure that health services reach poor and disadvantaged groups, including minorities and those living in conflict-affected areas.
Policy Note #1: Myanmar Health Systems in Transition Policy Notes Series
The Government of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar is committed to achieving universal health coverage (UHC) by 2030. In practice, this means that over the next 15 years the aim is to progressively ensure that all people in all parts of the country have access to the health-care services they need – both preventive and curative – without suffering financial hardship when paying for them.
This policy note is the first in a set of four. It provides an overview of the challenges to be overcome in making progress toward UHC and sets out recommendations for how they can be tackled. The other notes look in more detail at three specific issues: how UHC can improve equity, and how strengthening the township health system and expanding financial risk protection contribute to UHC.
Policy Note #3: Myanmar Health Systems in Transition Policy Notes Series
A network of basic health facilities has been established in each of the 330 townships, covering both rural and urban areas. For the vast majority of Myanmar’s people, particularly the 70% who reside in rural areas, the township health system (THS) is the only government-funded source of preventive, promotive and curative services.
To achieve the national policy objective of progressing towards universal health coverage (UHC) through a primary health-care approach by 2030, the THS is critical to success. It is responsible for the bulk of health care delivery – particularly in rural areas – and is at the heart of national health development in Myanmar. However, if the THS is to be the backbone of health care provision, it currently suffers from a severe case of osteoporosis.
The primary objective of the 2015-16 MDHS project is to provide up-to-date estimates of basic demographic and health indicators. Specifically, the MDHS collected information on fertility levels, marriage, fertility preferences, awareness and use of family planning methods, breastfeeding practices, nutrition, maternal and child health and mortality, awareness and behavior regarding HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and other health-related issues such as smoking and knowledge of tuberculosis. As the 2015-16 MDHS is the first DHS survey in the country, trend analysis is not carried out in this report.
Census Report Volume 4-F (Thematic report on Population Projections for the Union of Myanmar, States/Regions, Rural and Urban Areas, 2014-2050)
- The total population of Myanmar is estimated to be 65 million by 2050. The projection is based on steadily declining population growth rate over the projection period: from 0.9 per cent in 2015 to 0.3 per cent in 2050.
- The proportion of the urban population rises from 29.3 per cent in 2015 to 34.7 in 2050. The rural and urban crude birth rates both decline between 2015 and 2050, but the difference between them narrows to almost zero by the end of the period.
- The population of Yangon grows more rapidly than any other area, by 39 per cent between 2015 and 2031. Other rapidly growing areas include Kayah (37 per cent), Kachin (32 per cent), Nay Pyi Taw (27 per cent), and Shan (26 per cent). Ayeyawady, Magway and Mon lose population, mostly due to migration.
Census Report Volume 4-L
Myanmar’s 2014 Census enumerated 4.5 million people aged 60 and over and by 2050 Myanmar is projected to have 13 million people in this age group.
Myanmar’s population has aged between 1973 and 2014; while the total population increased at an annual rate of 1.4 per cent, the population aged 60 and over increased annually by 2.4 per cent. Within the older population, the oldest age group, those over 80 years old, has been growing much faster than those aged 60-79. In 2014, the urban population was slightly older than the rural population. This is the result of a more rapid decline in urban fertility, offset by net migration to urban areas by youth and young adults.