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Guidelines on International Protection No. 12

UN High Commissioner for Refugees, (2016)

Claims for refugee status related to situations of armed conflict and violence under Article 1A(2) of the 1951 Convention and/or 1967 Protocol relating to the Status of Refugees and the regional refugee definitions UNHCR issues these Guidelines on International Protection pursuant to its mandate, as contained in, inter alia, the Statute of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, namely paragraph 8(a), in conjunction with Article 35 of the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees, Article II of its 1967 Protocol, Article VIII(1) of the 1969 OAU Convention Governing the Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa, and Commitment II(e) of the 1984 Cartagena Declaration on Refugees. These Guidelines clarify paragraph 164 of the UNHCR Handbook on Procedures and Criteria for Determining Refugee Status under the 1951 Convention and otherwise complement the Handbook. They are to be read in conjunction with UNHCR’s other Guidelines on International Protection.

Recommended principles to guide actions concerning children on the move and other children affected by migration

Jacqueline Bhabha and Mike Dottridge, Eds.: UN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, (2016)

Available in Englisch, French, Spanis, Portuguese and Arabic from The “Principles” are intended to influence policy makers and other stakeholders responsible for implementing measures that affect the rights and needs of these children.

Genfer Flüchtlingskonvention (GFK) (1951) + Protokoll (1967)

Eds.: UNHCR, (1951)

Das „Abkommen über die Rechtsstellung der Flüchtlinge“- wie der eigentliche Titel der Genfer Flüchtlingskonvention (GFK) lautet – wurde am 28. Juli 1951 verabschiedet. Bis heute ist die GFK das wichtigste internationale Dokument für den Flüchtlingsschutz. Die Genfer Flüchtlingskonvention war zunächst darauf beschränkt, hauptsächlich europäische Flüchtlinge direkt nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg zu schützen. Um den geänderten Bedingungen von Flüchtlingen weltweit gerecht zu werden, wurde der Wirkungsbereich der Konvention mit dem Protokoll von 1967 sowohl zeitlich als auch geografisch erweitert. Insgesamt 147 Staaten sind bisher der Genfer Flüchtlingskonvention und/oder dem Protokoll von 1967 beigetreten. Für Versionen in anderen Sprachen (z.B. Russisch, Spanisch, Englisch, Französisch und Chinesisch) gehe zu

Convention And Protocol Relating To The Status Of Refugees

Eds.: UNHCR, (1951)

Refugee law encompasses both customary law, peremptory norms, and international legal instruments. The only international instruments directly applying to refugees are the 1951 United Nations Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees and the 1967 Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees. Both the Convention and the Protocol are open to states, but each may be signed separately. 145 states have ratified the Convention, and 146 have ratified the Protocol. This is the key document to refugee protection plus the text of the Protocol, which removed a deadline and geographical restrictions from the Convention. For versions in other languages (e.g. Russian, Spanish, French and Chinese) go to

FAQs to the 1951 Covention Relating to the Status of Refugees and its 1967 Protocol

Eds.: UNHCR, (2011)

The most frequently asked questions about the treaty and its protocol.

Cartagena Declaration on Refugees for Latin America

Eds.: Colloquium on the International Protection of Refugees, (1984)

The Cartagena Declaration on Refugees was adopted by the Colloquium on the International Protection of Refugees in Central America, Mexico and Panama on November 22, 1984. The declaration is a non-binding agreement but has been incorporated in refugee law in various countries. The Cartagena Declaration on Refugees bases its principles on the “commitments with regards to refugees” defined in the Contadora Act on Peace and Cooperation (which are based on the 1951 UN Refugee Convention and the 1967 Protocol). It includes a range of detailed commitments to peace, democratization, regional security and economic co-operation. It also provided for regional committees to evaluate and verify compliance with these commitments. This document contains the Spanish, French and English versions of the original text.

OAU Convention governing the specific aspects of refugee problems in Africa/La convention de l’OUA régissant les aspects propres aux problèmes des réfugiés en Afrique

Organization of African Unity (OAU), Eds.: Organization of African Unity (OAU), (1969)

The Organisation of African Unity (OAU) Convention Governing the Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa takes into account the unique aspects of the refugee situation on the African Continent. The 1951 Geneva Convention definition of refugees as "persons fleeing a well-founded fear of persecution" had not considered several problems encountered by African refugees and was too narrow within the African context. As a result, Article One of the OAU Convention adds a second paragraph to extend the definition of the term "refugee" and include external aggression, occupation, foreign domination or events seriously disturbing public order as causes of migration and flight. The document contains both the English and the French versions of the original text. For versions in Arabic, Kirundi, Russian and Spanish check also:

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