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NEW Bienvenidas asimétricas: Respuestas de América Latina y el Caribe a la migración venezolana y nicaragüense

Migation Policy Institute, (2020)

Aproximadamente 3,9 millones de venezolanos se han mudado a otros lugares de América Latina o el Caribe en los últimos años, lo cual ha convertido a este fenómeno en la segunda crisis de desplazamiento forzado más grande del mundo después de la de Siria. Por otra parte, aunque el éxodo venezolano se ha acelerado notablemente desde 2017, entre 80,000 y 100,000 nicaragüenses han huido a Costa Rica en medio de la creciente represión política interna en el país.

Health of refugees and migrants. WHO Region Europe 2018

World Health Organization WHO, Regional Office for Europe, (2018)

Regional situation analysis, practices, experiences, lessons learned and ways forward.

UNHCR Global Trends Forced Displacement 2018

UN High Commissioner for Refugees UNHCR, (2019)

The number of people fleeing war, persecution and conflict exceeded 70 million in 2018. This is the highest level that UNHCR has seen in its almost 70 years. The figure of 70.8 million is conservative, in particular as the crisis in Venezuela is still only partly reflected in this number. In all, some 4 million Venezuelans, according to data from governments receiving them, have left their country, making this among the world’s biggest recent displacement crises. Although the majority need international refugee protection, as of today only around half a million have taken the step of formally applying for asylum. ithin the 70.8 million figure in the Global Trends report are three main groups. The first is refugees, meaning people forced to flee their country because of conflict, war or persecution. In 2018, the number of refugees reached 25.9 million worldwide, 500,000 more than in 2017. Included in this total are 5.5 million Palestine refugees who are under the care of the United Nations Relief and Works Agency. The second group is asylum seekers – people outside their country of origin and receiving international protection, but awaiting the outcome of their claim to refugee status. At the end of 2018 there were 3.5 million asylum seekers globally. The third and biggest group, at 41.3 million, is people displaced to other areas within their own country, a category commonly referred to as Internally Displaced People or IDPs.

Displaced & Disconnected

UN High Commissioner for Refugees UNHCR, (2019)

These country reports provide information on the legal situation for displaced populations, namely asylum seekers, refugees, and returnees, where relevant, regarding access to mobile services, in each country covered

Flow Monitoring Surveys Analysis: Profile And Reported Vulnerabilities Of Migrants Along The Eastern, Central And Western Mediterranean Route (April 2019)

International Organization for Migration IOM, (2019)

DTM team interviewed 5,328 migrants and refugees who travelled to Europe through Eastern, Central and Western Mediterranean route between July and October 2018. 70 per cent of respondents interviewed in Italy answered « yes » to at least one of the five indicators of human trafficking, exploitation and abuse, the highest among all three routes.

Forcibly Displaced : Toward a Development Approach Supporting Refugees, the Internally Displaced, and Their Hosts

World Bank, (2017)

The report depicts the reality of forced displacement as a developing world crisis with implications for sustainable growth: 95 percent of the displaced live in developing countries and over half are in displacement for more than four years. To help the displaced, the report suggests ways to rebuild their lives with dignity through development support, focusing on their vulnerabilities such as loss of assets and lack of legal rights and opportunities. It also examines how to help host communities that need to manage the sudden arrival of large numbers of displaced people, under pressure to expand services, create jobs and address long-standing development issues.

Länderreport 8: Venezuela

Bundesamt für Migration und Flüchtlinge BAMF, (2019)

Ausgehend von allgemeinen Informationen zum Land über Hintergrundinformationen zum Konflikt (Wirtschaftskrise und politische Krise) werden auch die Menschenrechtsverletzungen durch die Regierung beschrieben. Der Bericht geht in diesem Zusammenhang auf die Aktivitäten der zahlreichen bewaffneten Gruppen (Armee, Sicherheitsdienste und "Colectivos") sowie die Rolle des staatlichen Öl- und Gaskonzerns Konzerns "PDVSA" ein. Schließlich behandelt er die Situation der Bevölkerung unter dem Blickwinkel des Zugangs zu sozialen Sicherungssystemen.

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