Weekly epidemiological record / Relevé épidémiologique hebdomadaire
22 SEPTEMBER 2017, 92th YEAR / 22 SEPTEMBRE 2017, 92e ANNÉE
No 38, 2017, 92, 557–572
There are 4 main forms of the disease: visceral leishmaniasis (VL, also known as kala-azar); post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL); cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL); and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL). While cutaneous leishmaniasis is the most common form of the disease, visceral leishmaniasis is the most serious and can be fatal if untreated. Additionally, leishmaniasis can be classified as anthroponotic or zoonotic depending on whether the natural reservoir of the parasite is human or animal.
This report updates global epidemiological information on VL and CL to 2015, based on the main indicators published in the GHO, as of 1st September 2017.
The plan contains the latest available evidence on the extent of insecticide resistance around the world, and puts forward a strategy for global and country levels, identifying clear roles and timelines for all stakeholders. The GPIRM also summarizes information about innovative new products being developed and sets out the immediate research and development priorities.
Le panorama du paludisme a profondement changé durant la dernière décénnie. Les financements ont augmenté, les outils permettant de sauver des vies ont été mis en œuvre à plus grande échelle, la charge du paludisme a diminué et un nombre grandissant de pays envisagent son élimination.
Ce cadre actualisé fait le point sur les outils, les activités et les stratégies nécessaires pour atteindre l'élimination du paludisme et empêcher la reprise de la transmission dans les pays, quelle que soit l'étape à laquelle ils se trouvent sur la route menant à l'élimination ou l’intensité de la transmission. Le cadre est destiné à servir de référence pour élaborer des plans stratégiques d’élimination du paludisme au niveau national et doit être adapté aux contextes locaux.
The WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) is an evidence-based treaty that reaffirms the right of all people to the highest standard of health and was developed in response to the globalization of the tobacco epidemic. Member States of the WHO South-East Asia Region have made attempts to implement the demand and supply reduction strategies for tobacco control as recommended by the treaty. While recognizing the need to accelerate implementation of the WHO FCTC in the Region, this document has been developed to support the Member States in implementing the treaty using a ‘PRACTICAL’ Approach which pertains to identified demand and supply reduction strategies under the treaty.
published in: Viruses 2016, 8, 161
ECDC Technical Report
In line with ECDC’s recommendations provided in the ’Risk Assessment of HTLV-1/2 transmission by tissue/cell transplantation’ dated 14 March 2012, this Directive replaces the term ‘incidence’ with ‘prevalence’ in the description of endemic areas of HTLV-1/2 infection. According to the new requirements ‘HTLV-1 antibody testing must be performed for donors living in, or originating from high-prevalence areas or with sexual partners originating from those areas or where the donor’s parents originate from those areas’ and this applies to both donors of non-reproductive tissues and cells and reproductive cells.
ECDC contracted experts from the Institut Pasteur in Paris to systematically review the published evidence on the distribution of HTLV-1 infection prevalence throughout the world and to identify high-prevalence countries and areas.
(African Development Bank policy research document 1)
The report examines financing in the battle against malaria, focusing on the role of foreign aid. It analyzes whether or not a disease such as malaria can be controlled or eliminated in Africa without health aid. It also presents a theoretical model of the economics of malaria and shows how health aid can help avoid the “disease trap.” While calling for increased funding from international sources to fight malaria, it also recommends that African countries step up their own efforts, including on domestic resource mobilization. In 2016, governments of endemic countries contributed 31% of the estimated total of US $ 2.7 billion.
Between 2000 and 2014, malaria control efforts were scaled up and worldwide deaths were cut in half. But declining health aid and deprioritized vertical aid (as for malaria), despite its potentially great efficiency, have led to rising numbers of cases. In 2016, 216 million cases of malaria were reported, up from 211 million in 2015. Africa was home to 90% of all malaria cases and 91% of malaria deaths in 2016. Progress appears to have stalled in the global fight against the disease.