A healthcare worker manual. 2nd edition The development of this National Manual for the Management of HIV-related Opportunistic Infections and Conditions for use by health care workers at the frontline of our fight against HIV/AIDS is intended to improve their understanding of the causes, prevention and appropriate management of opportunistic infections and conditions in adults and adolescents (OIs in children is covered effectively in the Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses – IMCI – materials). It is also intended to be a practical guide at the clinic level, so as to improve quality of life, treatment outcomes and survival of PLHA. Crucially, this manual uses a “symptom-based” approach to support health care workers at the most basic primary level to be able to effectively initiate the care of PLHA with OIs and refer patients as appropriate (effective triage of patients at the primary care level). The result of this will be to move the management of OIs closer to the patient while ensuring that referral links with higher-level facilities and care is cultivated.