A resposta a um surto de cólera focaliza geralmente os aspectos médicos que são importantes para reduzir a mortalidade. Contudo, há necessidade de uma resposta mais abrangente para limitar a propagação da doença. Como a resposta a surtos é geralmente dirigida por profi ssionais médicos, pode
haver tendência para negligenciar outros aspectos, tais como problemas ambientais ou de comunicação.
Cholera is a diarrhoeal disease that is usually contracted when drinking water contaminated with Vibrio cholerae bacteria. The fight against this disease requires a multidisciplinary approach that combines a water, hygiene and sanitation (WaSH) response with a monitoring system, improved water supply and quality, sanitation and hygiene, and a health response with the treatment of the disease itself.
The report offers 20 top recommendations for getting ahead of future outbreaks in Yemen and similarly complex humanitarian settings.
In 2015, Yemen was declared a Level 3 emergency by the UN, kicking into gear the highest level of humanitarian support. A massive cholera outbreak followed, leading to 1 million suspected cases in 2 waves from September 2016-July 2018.
“We largely know ‘what to do’ to control cholera, but context-specific practices on ‘how to do it’ in order to surmount challenges to coordination, logistics, insecurity, access and politics remain needed,” the report states.
While the response improved between the 2 waves, there were gaps. For one, Yemen’s history of cholera should have triggered a heavy focus on pre-planning for an epidemic, such as stockpiling supplies and doubling down on community-based surveillance, the report fou
The major areas of focus for the plan will be:
- Social mobilization and community empowerment (health promotion & education for disease prevention);
- Promotion of access to safe water, good sanitation and hygiene;
- Surveillance and laboratory confirmation of outbreaks;
- Prompt case management and infection control;
- Complementary use of oral cholera vaccine (OCV) for cholera endemic communities; and
- Coordination and stewardship between and for all actors.
- Monitoring, supervision, evaluation and operation research to ensure continued improvement in service delivery.
Operational Guidelines for the national and district health workers & planners.
These new approaches include use of selective chemotherapy, Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDTs), Zinc for treatment of cholera in children and complementary use of OCV
CORE Group has developed a module to improve preparedness for and response of communities in countries at risk of a cholera epidemic. The module consists of four lesson plans with accompanying flipcharts, intended to be delivered through community health workers. The lessons target mothers and caregivers of children under age five, a group that is at particular risk of death if infected. The module shares information about symptoms and risks; what families can do to prevent infection; how, when, and where to seek care; and what actions to take in the aftermath of an outbreak.
Ending Cholera—A Global Roadmap to 2030 operationalises the new global strategy for cholera control at the country level and provides a concrete path toward a world in which cholera is no longer a threat to public health