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How to Investigate Antimicrobial Use in Hospitals: Selected Indicators

Strengthening Pharmaceutical Systems, (2012)

The purpose of this manual is to define a limited number of indicators that will objectively describe the management and use of antimicrobials in hospitals and to provide tools and step-by-step instructions for designing and carrying out an assessment of antibiotic use and management in hospitals. The indicators in this manual will complement the existing WHO (1993) indicators of outpatient antimicrobial use suggested in How to Investigate Drug Use in Health Facilities (including percentage of encounters in which an antibiotic was prescribed and percentage of medicine costs spent on antibiotics) and will address the need for antimicrobial indicators for inpatient conditions.

Antimicrobioal resistance in G7 countries and beyond

Cecchini, M.; J. Langer and J. Slawomirski, Eds.: OECD, (2015)

Economic Issues, Policies and Option for Action

Drug Resistance Through The Back Door: How The Pharmaceutical Industry Is Fuelling The Rise Of Superbugs Through Pollution In Its Supply Chains

Sascha Marchang, Natasha Hurley, Eds.: European Public Health Alliance (EPHA), Changing Markets, (2016)

Irresponsible pharmaceutical companies fuel the proliferation of superbugs through supply chain pollution, the European Public Health Alliance (EPHA) reports. The advocacy group uncovered lapses such as dirty production and inadequate waste disposal in the production of antimicrobials in China and India, which supplies most of the antimicrobials consumed in Europe. In a briefing detailing the pollution, the EPHA urges major purchasers of antibiotics to blacklist irresponsible pharmaceutical companies, demand that the industry clean up its supply chain, introduce greater transparency on the origin of antibiotics, and review and revise procurement policies from an ethics perspective.

Antibiotic resistance: Multi-country public awareness survey

World Health Organization (WHO), (2015)

WHO commissioned a survey, carried out in September/October 2015, among some 10 000 members of the public in 12 countries (2 per WHO Region: Barbados, China, Egypt, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Nigeria, the Russian Federation, Serbia, South Africa, Sudan and Viet Nam) on their use of antibiotics, knowledge of antibiotics and of antibiotic resistance. While not claiming to be exhaustive, this and other surveys will help WHO and partners to ensure efforts are focused on tackling some of the biggest gaps in understanding and the most prevalent misconceptions

Worldwide country situation analysis: response to antimicrobial resistance

World Health Organization, (2015)

A survey was conducted in countries in all six WHO regions and focused on the building blocks that are considered prerequisites to combat antimicrobial resistance: a comprehensive national plan, laboratory capacity to undertake surveillance for resistant microorganisms, access to safe, effective antimicrobial medicines, control of the misuse of these medicines, awareness and understanding among the general public and effective infection prevention and control programmes.

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