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Global Action Plan on Antimicrobial Resistance

World Health Organization WHO, (2015)

The goal of the draft global action plan is to ensure, for as long as possible, continuity of successful treatment and prevention of infectious diseases with effective and safe medicines that are quality-assured, used in a responsible way, and accessible to all who need them.

How to Investigate Antimicrobial Use in Hospitals: Selected Indicators

Strengthening Pharmaceutical Systems, (2012)

The purpose of this manual is to define a limited number of indicators that will objectively describe the management and use of antimicrobials in hospitals and to provide tools and step-by-step instructions for designing and carrying out an assessment of antibiotic use and management in hospitals. The indicators in this manual will complement the existing WHO (1993) indicators of outpatient antimicrobial use suggested in How to Investigate Drug Use in Health Facilities (including percentage of encounters in which an antibiotic was prescribed and percentage of medicine costs spent on antibiotics) and will address the need for antimicrobial indicators for inpatient conditions.

Antimicrobioal resistance in G7 countries and beyond

Cecchini, M.; J. Langer and J. Slawomirski, Eds.: OECD, (2015)

Economic Issues, Policies and Option for Action

Drug Resistance Through The Back Door: How The Pharmaceutical Industry Is Fuelling The Rise Of Superbugs Through Pollution In Its Supply Chains

Sascha Marchang, Natasha Hurley, Eds.: European Public Health Alliance (EPHA), Changing Markets, (2016)

Irresponsible pharmaceutical companies fuel the proliferation of superbugs through supply chain pollution, the European Public Health Alliance (EPHA) reports. The advocacy group uncovered lapses such as dirty production and inadequate waste disposal in the production of antimicrobials in China and India, which supplies most of the antimicrobials consumed in Europe. In a briefing detailing the pollution, the EPHA urges major purchasers of antibiotics to blacklist irresponsible pharmaceutical companies, demand that the industry clean up its supply chain, introduce greater transparency on the origin of antibiotics, and review and revise procurement policies from an ethics perspective.

Antibiotic resistance: Multi-country public awareness survey

World Health Organization (WHO), (2015)

WHO commissioned a survey, carried out in September/October 2015, among some 10 000 members of the public in 12 countries (2 per WHO Region: Barbados, China, Egypt, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Nigeria, the Russian Federation, Serbia, South Africa, Sudan and Viet Nam) on their use of antibiotics, knowledge of antibiotics and of antibiotic resistance. While not claiming to be exhaustive, this and other surveys will help WHO and partners to ensure efforts are focused on tackling some of the biggest gaps in understanding and the most prevalent misconceptions

Checklist for Core Elements of Hospital Antibiotic Stewardship Programs

Eds.: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), (2014)

The following checklist is a companion to Core Elements of Hospital Antibiotic Stewardship Programs. This checklist should be used to systematically assess key elements and actions to ensure optimal antibiotic prescribing and limit overuse and misuse of antibiotics in hospitals. CDC recommends that all hospitals implement an Antibiotic Stewardship Program.

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